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Knee Pain and Foot Problems

11 Jul

Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is commonly associated with running, jumping, squatting, and walking up/down stairs. It’s thought that PFP is caused by excessive rubbing between the back of the patella and groove, or track, that it rides in. Besides overuse, additional causes for PFP pain include muscle imbalance or weakness or direct trauma. The condition is most common in adolescents and young adults, usually due to overuse and/or misalignment, the latter of which is often referred to as poor “patellofemoral tracking.” This can eventually lead to arthritis, which is more commonly seen in older adults with PF pain.

Past research has demonstrated that issues in the foot can increase the risk for musculoskeletal pain in other parts of the body, including the knees. In a 2018 study, researchers examined the effect of knee-targeted exercise vs. a combined approach that included knee- and foot-focused exercise with foot orthotics (shoe inserts to correct pronation or the rolling inwards of the ankle and foot) in patients with patellofemoral pain.

Participants were instructed to perform terminal extension quad exercises that emphasized COMPLETE extension (straightening) of the knee. This exercise can be done sitting or lying on the back with a rolled-up towel behind the knees (with or without an ankle weight) and fully flexing the quad muscles for three to five seconds and repeating the process ten to twenty times, as tolerated.

The results revealed a significantly greater improvement in the group that included foot care, supporting the conclusion that better outcomes are achieved by combining foot exercise and foot orthotics with knee exercises. The authors reported that the benefits were still present four months after the conclusion of care but not a year, suggesting the importance of continuing exercise and foot orthotic use.

Doctors of chiropractic routinely perform posture assessments when examining patients with knee pain in order to identify dysfunction in the hip or feet that may contribute to their chief complaint.

 

This information should not be substituted for medical or chiropractic advice. Any and all healthcare concerns, decisions, and actions must be done through the advice and counsel of a healthcare professional who is familiar with your updated medical history.

Hip Exercises to Help Knee Pain – Seriously?

14 Jun

The hip and knee are anatomically very close to one another. Functionally, there are several muscles that attach above the hip and below the knee joint. Hence, depending on the position and/or activity, the same muscle can move the hip and/or the knee. This close relationship crosses over in dysfunction as well, as patients with knee pain move differently, and the hip joint is ultimately affected. But which one is the real culprit, the chicken (hip) or the egg (knee)?

In a quest to answer that question, one study asked patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and without hip pain to perform either knee exercises or hip exercises. Each group consisted of nine men and nine women. The knee exercise group performed quadricep or knee strengthening exercises while the hip exercise group engaged in hip strengthening exercises. The specific hip exercises included hip abduction (outward resistance) and hip external rotation muscle strengthening exercises. Both groups performed their exercises three times per week for a total of eight weeks. All participants experienced improvements in pain and function; however, the patients in the hip exercise group reported greater improvements than those in the knee exercise group. These results persisted for the next six months.

Why did hip exercises help patients with PFP knee pain MORE than knee-specific exercises? Weight-bearing dynamic imaging studies (x-rays) have shown that patients with PFP knee pain frequently have a lateral or outward displacement of the knee cap as well as lateral tilt due to femur/hip internal rotation (IR) rather than just abnormal patella motion due to muscle imbalance (the “old” theory).

Other recently published biomechanical studies have reported that persons with PFP demonstrate excessive internal rotation and adduction (inwards positioning) of the hip that isn’t generally observed in pain-free subjects. Further, those with PFP tend to have weak hip abductors, extensors, and external rotator muscles than pain-free individuals.

Chiropractic care focuses on whole body care, and patients are often surprised that doctors of chiropractic frequently treat hip, knee, ankle, and foot conditions. Posture and gait assessments, which may be included in an initial patent examination, frequently reveal abnormal movement patterns, leg length discrepancy, pelvic rotation, and lower lumbar spine dysfunction that may contribute to a patient’s chief complaint. Often, treatment must address these issues for the patient to achieve a successful outcome.

This information should not be substituted for medical or chiropractic advice. Any and all healthcare concerns, decisions, and actions must be done through the advice and counsel of a healthcare professional who is familiar with your updated medical history.

What Can Be Done for Kneecap Pain?

19 Apr

Patellofemoral (PF) pain (or pain in the area of the knee cap) is a very common problem, especially in women because they naturally have a wider pelvis. A wider pelvis can cause a “knock-knee” effect, which can be exacerbated by flat feet and ankle pronation (rolling in at the ankles). The net result is that outward pressure increases on the patella, which can be quite disabling and interfere with weight bearing activities. So, what can be done for individuals with patellofemoral pain?

Because we cannot change the width of the pelvis, the focus must shift to the foot/ankle and hip/knee muscle balance. A 2014 study set out to prove (or disprove) that exercises that target BOTH the hip and knee vs. the knee only would yield better long-term outcomes.

Here, researchers randomly assigned 31 women with PF pain to one of two treatment groups: Group A participated in BOTH hip & knee exercises for eight weeks and Group B engaged in ONLY knee exercises for eight weeks. Following the completion of each eight-week exercise program, the researchers examined each participant, followed by a re-examination three months later. The investigators found that patients in Group A experienced greater improvements with regards to pain and function.

The authors of the study concluded, “An intervention program consisting of hip muscle strengthening and lower-limb and trunk movement control exercises was more beneficial in improving pain, physical function, kinematics, and muscle strength compared to a program of quadriceps-strengthening exercises alone.”

The “take-home” message here is that patients obtain the best results when treatment—in this case, exercise—is applied to more than just the area of complaint. Chiropractic care includes assessment of the whole person, not just a localized area where the patient feels pain. Perhaps this is why chiropractic almost always scores highest in “patient satisfaction” surveys when compared with other healthcare delivery systems.

This information should not be substituted for medical or chiropractic advice. Any and all healthcare concerns, decisions, and actions must be done through the advice and counsel of a healthcare professional who is familiar with your updated medical history.

Knee Pain and Jumping Injuries

15 Jan

The term “jumper’s knee” was first coined in 1973 to describe an injury to the tendon that attaches the lower (most common) to the prominence (tibial tuberosity) on the proximal shin bone (tibia) or the upper pole of the knee cap or “patella” to the quadriceps femoris muscle.

Jumper’s knee is one of the more common tendinopathies that affect up to 20% of all adult athletes in sports with frequent jumping, typically among adolescent basketball and volleyball players. Individuals who are obese or who are bow-legged or knock-kneed or whose lower limbs are unequal in length have a higher risk for jumper’s knee. Poor jumping technique can also increase the risk for this condition as can cause overtraining, especially on hard surfaces.

The disease process for jumper’s knee can be divided into four stages: 1) pain only after activity without disability; 2) pain during and after without disability; 3) prolonged pain during and after which affects function; 4) complete tendon tear that requires surgical repair.

Treatment for jumper’s knee can include: 1) reducing jumping activity;  2) icing the knee for 15-30 minutes, four to six times a day, especially after the activity; 3) a thorough exam of the hip, knee, ankle, and foot to assess joint function; 4) stretching the hamstrings, calf, quadriceps, hip flexors, gluteal (buttocks), iliotibial band, and tissues around the knee cap; 5) strengthening exercises focused on specific parts of the quadriceps (vastus medialis oblique especially) and other leg muscles; 6) ultrasound and other therapies that may help speed recovery; and 7) taping to help patellar tracking.

Doctors of chiropractic are trained to evaluate and treat the whole person and frequently treat athletic injuries. A successful treatment outcome for jumper’s knee requires both local knee care and the management of the entire lower “kinetic chain” which includes the foot, ankle, knee, hip, and pelvis.

The Knee Cap and Knee Pain

13 Jul

The knee can be divided into four compartments—the front, inside, back, and outside—which intimately interact with each other. The compartment located in the front of the knee includes the knee cap (or patella), the groove in which it slides in, and the muscles that attach to the patella. The patella is the body’s largest “floating bone” (technically called a sesmoid bone). The function of the patella is to act as a kind of pulley that allows the knee to fully and easily extend. This area of the knee is often referred to as the “extensor mechanism”, as it is responsible for allowing the knee to extend or straighten.

When full extension cannot be accomplished, this is referred to as “extension lag” or “flexion contracture.” Extension lag is often caused by weakness of one of the four quadriceps muscles called the vastus medialis oblique (VMO), and depending on the cause of the weakness, exercises that specifically address this problem are very important in regaining the ability of the knee to fully lock out in extension.

Flexion contracture results in a similar inability to fully extend or straighten the knee, but the cause is not due to muscle weakness but rather the shortening or “contracture” of the muscles that flex the knee called the hamstrings, which are located behind the leg and knee. This can happen when patients are bed-bound, and it can become a permanent impairment if the hamstrings are not used or properly stretched on a regular basis.

Another problem associated with the patella is a softening of the cartilage behind the knee cap, which is called chondromalacia patella (CP). One symptom associated CP includes burning pain in the front of the knee, especially when the knee is bent for a prolonged period of time. Symptoms can be very intense but usually improve quickly once the knee is straightened out or the person can stand or walk.

The shape of the patella as well as the shape and depth of the groove in which the knee cap glides can be altered by trauma and/or genetic reasons. This can also predispose the patient to problems in this compartment of the knee. A common genetic example is an excessively knocked knee (technically called genu valgus). This results in the disproportionate rubbing of the patella on the outer ridge of the femoral groove, which can be painful.

Doctors of chiropractic are trained to assess, diagnose, and treat patients with knee pain utilizing manual therapies, modalities, exercise, and orthotics for foot/ankle conditions, as well as the application of braces and/or taping of the knee.

FOR A FREE NO-OBLIGATION CONSULTATION CALL 717-697-1888

Dr. Brent Binder
4909 Louise Drive, Suite 102
Mechanicsburg Pa, 17055

Member of Chiro-Trust.org

This information should not be substituted for medical or chiropractic advice. Any and all healthcare concerns, decisions, and actions must be done through the advice and counsel of a healthcare professional who is familiar with your updated medical history.

Is Your Foot Causing Your Knee Pain?

13 Apr

Due to bipedal locomotion (walking around on two legs), foot and ankle problems have the potential to affect EVERYTHING above the feet—even the knees!

When analyzing the way we walk (also known as our gait), we find when the heel strike takes place, the heel and foot motion causes “supination” or the rolling OUT of the ankle. As the unloaded leg begins to swing forwards, there is a quick transition to pronation where the heel and ankle roll inwards and the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot flattens and pronates NORMALLY!

During the transition from supination to pronation, the flattening of the MLA acts like a spring to propel us forwards followed by the “toe off”, the last phase, as we push off with our big toe and the cycle starts with the other leg. However, if you watch people walk from behind, you will see MANY ankles roll inwards too much. This is call “hyperpronation” and that is NOT NORMAL!

So at what point does this normal pronation become hyperpronation? The answer is NOT black and white, as there is no specific “cut-off” point but rather, a range of abnormal. Hence, we use the terms mild, moderate, and severe hyperpronation to describe the variance or the degrees of abnormality. Hyperpronation can lead to the development of bunions and foot/ankle instability that can cause and/or contribute to knee, hip, pelvis, and spinal problems—even neck and head complaints can result (the “domino effect”)!

One study looked at the incidence of hyperpronation in 50 subjects who had an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture vs. 50 without a history of knee / ACL injury. They found the ACL-injured subjects had greater pronation than the noninjured subjects suggesting that the presence of hyperpronation increases the risk of ACL injury.

Doctors of chiropractic are trained to evaluate and treat knee conditions of all kinds. Often this may include prescribing exercises or utilizing foot orthotics in an effort to restore the biomechanics of the foot, which can have positive effects not only on the knees but also further up the body.

FOR A FREE NO-OBLIGATION CONSULTATION CALL 717-697-1888

Dr. Brent Binder
4909 Louise Drive, Suite 102
Mechanicsburg Pa, 17055
Member of Chiro-Trust.org